JOURNAL

OF THE

ARNOLD ARBORETUM

EDITED BY CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT

VOLUME I

CAMBRIDGE 1920

Reprinted with the permission of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University

KRAUS REPRINT CORPORATION 1967

é 4 a, La

. 1 (pp. 1-66) issued July 21, 1919

. 2 (pp. 67-146) issued November 20, 1919 . 3 (pp. 147-210) issued February 23, 1920 . 4 (pp. 211-277) issued April, 1920

Printed in U.S.A.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

oo By C. S. Sargent

Notes on AMERICAN Wiuuows. V. THE SPECIES OF THE PLEO- NANDRAE Group. By Camillo Schneider .

A PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE eee Fions OF nen, By E. H. Wilson

New SprEciEs, VARIETIES AND Counieinions. FROM THE ates RIUM AND COLLECTIONS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. By Alfred Rehder . 2. oe os oe a oe oS

Notes ON NortH AMERICAN TREES. V._ By C. S. Sargent

Notes on AMERICAN Witxows. VI. By Camillo Schneider mG

Tue Bonrtn ISLANDS AND THEIR LiGNEous VEGETATION. By E. H. Wilson

New Woopy Pras FROM THE “Hoxie Tavs By Alfred Fahidee

and E. H. Wilson

New SpEciEs, VARIETIES AND Comncidve FROM THE sPientiearas AND THE COLLECTIONS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. By aime Rehder

NoTES ON oma Wann VII. iy Gumnillo Schneier,

Tue Livxivu Istanps AND THEIR LigNgous VecetaTiIon. By E. H. Wilson

Four New Casa FROM Renew By E. H. Wilson :

TETRAPLASIA, A New Genus or RusBiAcEAE. By Alfred Renda:

New SPEcIEs, VARIETIES AND COMBINATIONS FROM THE HERBARIUM AND THE COLLECTIONS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. By anne Rehder

NOTES ON ere Weriows: VIII. By Caaills Seine

THe CANyon FiLora oF THE Epwarps PLATEAu or Texas. By Ernest J. Palmer . a’

CAMPHOR, CINNAMOMUM Ciendee Nees & Peiniains, By E. H. Wilson

THe AMERICAN AND Acton co OF Le eeree By Alfred Rehder .

Notes on Nortu arenas Tanne. VL By C. & Sonient

New SpercigEs, VARIETIES AND COMBINATIONS FROM THE HERBARIUM AND THE COLLECTIONS OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. By Alfred Rehder

Note. sn ely @. 4. ORs 6 2 on ee ERRATA ENDER oo. ee OCU ee

THE JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM

DvurinG the ten years from 1887 to 1897 Garden and Forest, a weekly Jour- nal of Horticulture and Forestry, offered the opportunity for the prompt publication of information about trees and shrubs collected at the Arnold Arboretum. Since the publication of that journal was discontinued the Arboretum has had no organ on which it could depend to publish within a reasonable time the material which is gathered in its laboratories.

To overcome this difficulty the Arboretum will now begin the publication of a quarterly journal. In its pages will appear notes on trees and shrubs with descriptions of new species and their relationships, letters from cor- respondents, and notes on the vegetation of countries visited by officers and agents of the Arboretum. In the Journal of the Arboretum will appear also such items of news about the Arboretum, its library, collections, and projects which will interest botanists, horticulturists and other friends of the institution.

Since 1911 information in regard to the flowering and fruiting of some of the interesting plants in the Arboretum and their cultivation has appeared in Bulletins of Popular Information published at irregular intervals. The Journal of the Arboretum will not take the place of these Bulletins, which will be continued.

C. S. SARGENT. July, 1919

JOURNAL

OF THE

ARNOLD ARBORETUM

VotumME I JULY, 1919 NUMBER 1

NOTES ON AMERICAN WILLOWS. V THE SPECIES OF THE PLEONANDRAE GROUP! CAMILLO SCHNEIDER

In my conspectus of the Mexican species of Salix (Bot. Gaz. Lxv. 1-41. 1918) I stated that I had already made a rather extensive investigation of the forms belonging to the Pleiandrae * group (sect. igrae, Triandrae, Pentandrae subsect. Lucidae and Bonplandianae) ”’; I then dealt with all the forms of this group which are found from Mexico to South America. To-day I propose to give a key for the determination of all the American species and varieties of these sections, to discuss their geographical distribu- tion, and to deal with those forms of which I have not yet spoken in my paper cited above. The Pleonandrae group is well defined in so far as the male plants always have more than 2 (from 3 to 15) stamens, while all the other American Salix (except of course some hybrids) have 2 stamens or only one in S. sttchensis, S. Coulteri and S. Uva- Ursi.

Besides the rich material of the herbarium of the Arnold Arboretum I have been able to study the collections of the Gray Herbarium and of the herbaria of the Missouri Botanic Garden, of the Field Museum, of the Geological Survey of Canada, and of the Leland Stanford University; and I have had at my disposal part of the collections of the herbaria at Kew, New York, Reno and Washington.’ I wish to express my best thanks to

1 The preceding parts of this series ony appeared in Botanical Gazette: I. The species re- lated to Salix arctica Pall. (Bot. Gaz. txv1. 117-142. 1918.) II. The rane Siena to Salix glauca. (I. c. 318-353. 1918.) III. re conspectus of papinany: species and va s of sections Reticulatae, Herbaceae, Ovalifoliae and Glaucae. (I. ¢ 1. 27-64. 1919.) oy. The species and varieties of section Longifoliae. (1. c. 309-346, oa ‘See also A conspectus of Mexican, West Indian, Central and South American species and varieties of Salix. (Bot. Gaz. Lxv. 1-41.

2 The name Pleiandrae was used by ANDERSSON (1867, 1868) but he included in his group also sect. Fragiles of which the male plants are diandrous. I prefer to use the spelling Pleon- andrae of VON rey (Salic. Japon. 15. 1903) who restricts his group to the species with more than 2 stam

3 In the e ein of a I am using the following abbreviations: A., Herbarium of the Arnold ie iia, —C., Herbarium of the Field Museum, Chicago. Cal., Herba- rium of California Academy [ Science. Cor., Herbarium of Cornell University. CU

m e

w Herbarium. L., Herbarium of the University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo. a Gere of the Missouri Botanic Garden. N., Herbarium of the New York Botanic Gar-

2 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [Vou. 1

the curators of all these herbaria. For some interesting material I am indebted to Professor G. P. Clinton, New Haven, Conn., Miss A. Eastwood, San Francisco, Professor J. K. Henry, Vancouver, B.C., Mr. I. M. Johnston, Upland, Cal., and last, but not least to Mr. J. C. Nelson, Salem, Ore. From the Herbarium of the University of Oregon, at Eugene, I have re- ceived the Salix material of the Howell Herbarium.

CLAVIS SPECIERUM VARIETATUMQUE

Folia meres semper utrinque concoloria, viridia, linearia, lineari-lanceolata vel eolata, sei a facie peas plus minusve aequinumerosis (tantum in anes rta S. ntgrae paucioribus vel fere nullis) instructa: petioli (vel basis pecan apice ent vel subeglandulosi (i.e. glandulis distinctis flavescentibus saepe irregulariter lobulatis haud a sed saepe glandulae minimae punctiformes adsunt); ramuli fragilissim , Sect. I. NiGrar. Ramuli annotini * biennesque pl tes vel cineimanten ovaria pedicellique semper glabri Fructus perfecte maturi ° senda vel ovoideo-oblongi, apice vix vel tantum eviter attenuati, pedicello brevi iis pleroque 4—5plo breviore glandulam circ. 2plo superante suffulti; folia linearia vel lineari-lanceolata; laminae comparati satis longi; stipulae intus fere semper eglandulos

Flores feminei andulet antum ventrali instructi.

Folia distincte linearia, tantum versus apicem attenuata. La. saree daly Folia plus minusve lineari-lanceolata, fere a basi ad apicem sensim attenu- ata lb. S.H oir teen var. preva el

Flores fonines alandiulis 2 fone et aoeale instructi.

le. S. Humboldtiana var. Martiana Fructus perfecte maturi ovoideo-subrostrati, apice satis attenuati, pishinells satis variabili longitudine glandulam 2-5plo superante; folia lineari-lanceo- lata ad late lanceolata; petioli saepe fae comparati breviores vel stipulae intus plus minusve glanduliferae.

Ramuli hornotini vel petioli (saltem superne) plus minusve distincte villosuli vel folia plus minusve lanceolata basi obtusa, subrotunda vel breviter acuta et petioli breves (id est quam latitudo pai haud longiores) ; stipulae intus eglandulosae S. nigra et 2b. 8. nigra var. altissima.

Ramuli petiolique wae i Neenies ash folia plus minusve linearia et basim versus attenuata et petioli graciles satis longi; stipulae intus glandu- liferae 4 S. nigra var. Lindheimerit.

den. NE., inci of the New England Botanical Club. O., Herbarium of the Geol. Surv. of Canada, Ottawa. P., Herbarium of the Ac wie . Science, ae hia. Pu., Herbarium of the Gaivendis of Washington, Pulluan, Ren see of the Nevada Agric. Exp. Station, Reno, Nev. St. » Herbarium 2 on Leland ‘Stanford University. U.S. National Herbarium, iia > eton, If there is no eoainaate of a herbarium, the specimens are in A., the herbarium of the Arnold / Arboretum (and mostly also in ea ea herbaria). Other abbreviations are: m., es specimen. —f., fe cent specimen in flower. fr., ln specimen (im. fr. means io immature fruits). st., sterile specime : is refers to fully developed normal leaves towards the end of sterile b hanna rs

The ce ican leaves of these ‘Genichlew and the leaves of the flower-bearing branchlets

2“ Annotini”’ is used here for the ties ee branchlets of the previous season, while “hornotini” is used for the shoots of this

3 Very often the capsules are not ripe, ik vo been collected unripe and have opened in drying. Hence they are frequently smaller or of a different shape. If not properly fertilized the ovaries do not develop into normal capsules, but remain much smaller and look differently.

a

1919] SCHNEIDER, NOTES ON AMERICAN WILLOWS. V 8

Ramuli annotini biennesque plus minusve distincte flavescentes vel wh eyes ovaria, fructusque vel pedicelli tantum saepe plus minusve villosuli; frue ovoideo- vel ell beasts plus minusve attenuati, tata rer longe pedicellati Apr 3. 8. Gooddingii.

Folia adulta subtus discol ia vel albescentia, vel viridia (concoloria) sed superne non stomatifera ea pea i sparsis instructa et non lineari-lanceolata et petioli apice vel ad basim laminae distincte glanduliferi.

Petioli distincte glanduliferi, satis breves vel crassi; ramuli annotini biennesque

plus minusve nitiduli; amenta mascula plus minusve breviter cylindrica, satis crassa et stricta, apice vulgo attenuata, filamentis strictis; fructus satis brevi- ter et crasse pedicellati vel folia subtus viridescentia; ramuli ut videtur semper plus minusve valde fragiles . . Sect. Il]. Pentanpran, subsect. Lucipan. Folia matura subtus distincte ‘sibeacentia vel glaucescent Fructus 7-12 (vulgo circ. 10) mm. longi pedicello cire. rah breviore excluso: folia elli subd pEMeIED 2. apice acuta, vix ultra 9: 2.8 cm. (surculorum ex- cepta) magna, superne estomatifera 5. S. serissima, irl 6-7.5 (rarius ad 9) mm. longi pedicello $-5plo iAtins excluso; folia apice plus minusve acuminata caudatave, ad 16: 4 vel 19; 2.5 cm. (eis surculorum g p

instructa . S. lasiandra.

Folia matura subtus plus satnusve concoloria, viridescentia Gatrden pallide viridia, sed non glaucescentia).

Stomata in pagina superiore foliorum iis paginae inferioris fere aequinume-

i caudato-acu-

rosa; folia plus minusve lanceolata et plus minusve sensim minata, vulgo longiora quam lata . 6b. S. lasiandra, var. foliorum vel (rarissime ut videtur

ultra Siplo longiora quam lata (in. f. angustifolia 5—tplo quam S. lasi udatae saepe similia sed vulgo distinctius

gland a at vel basim versus magis angustata Folia plus minusve late ovato- vel elliptico-lanceolata, satis subito caudato- acumina iio Stee 4 2 17. S. lucida. Ramuli hornotini et interdum annotini pubescentia sordide

partim grisea vel rufescente praediti; folia initio satis He hi etiam adulta saltem in venis subtus (rufecenti-)pilosa . 7b. S. lucida var. intonsa.

Folia plus minusve anguste la: ta, satis sensim acuminata. 7c. 8. lucida t. angustifolia. ee eres landulis indisti: i diti, vel stomata in pagina periore foliorum nulla et folia satis ‘alain istincte glanduloso-denticulata.

- Folia plus minusve lanceolata, sensim acuminata, superne stomatibus nu- merosis instructa; ramuli distincte flavescentes.

JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM a

Ramuli annotini distincte rubescentes vel purpurascentes vel tomentelli, tenaces (tantum in S. Harbisonii fragiles); folia superne nunquam stoma-— tifera (vel in S. ‘Harbisonii secundum costam stomatibus plus minusve sparsis praedita) . . Sect. IV. BonPLANDIANAE. Fructus satis parvi et crassi, broviter gvmideo condi; apice vix vel paullo

attenuati, 4-5 mm. longi, pedicello satis crasso 4-5plo breviore excluso, | .

vel pedicelli ihaalenae fontibes) pilosi. Ramuli annotini dense tomentosi; folia initio subtus dense villoso-tomen-

Reere petioli breves, vix ad 8 m m. longi; amenta mascula tenuia, | ad 3:0.8 em. magna; fructus seattle circ. 4 mm. longi, basi bbe .

odes pilosi . 8. S. jaliscana. Ramuli annotini silederis "Polia subbua scraper glabra val cite glabrescentia— vel petioli foliorum majorum ultra 10 mm. longi; amenta serotina, ex axillis foliorum adultorum orientia vel coetanea, mascula

cm. longa; fructus circ. 5 mm. longi, pedicello 4—5plo breviore ex-_

cluso, glabri. oe serotina, autumno apparentia (vel in forma guatemalensi tanea), mascula femineaque 4-6 (-8) cm. negeee

Ramali novelli foliaque initio glabra . . 5. Bonplandiana, Ramuli novelli foliaque initio subtus plus'é minusve dee BN 9G 9b onplandiana var. pallida.

Amenta coetanea vel breviora, vix ultra 3 cm. longa. 9c. S. Bonplandiana var. Toumeyi. Fructus 5-9 mm. longi, apice subito vel longius attenuati vel pedicella gracili saepe tantum duplo breviore suffulti.

Stipulae in facie interiore plus minusve glanduliferae, parvae vel nullae;, folia matura vekpe vivide viridia, nitidula, margine satis indistincte

et adpresse glanduloso-denticulata; fructus vix ultra 6 mm. 1]

icello subduplo ad 3/5plo breviore excluso.

Ramuli novelli (foliaque subtus) glabri 10. S. laevigata.

Ramuli novelli (foliaque subtus plus minusve) tomenteli vel villosuli. S. laevigata f. araquipa- ‘Stipulae in facie interiore tantum plus minusve ease vel glabrae ro hae ferae (vel in 8. Harbisonit interdum pauciglandulosae), gee

= intensius sed plus minusve opace viridia, margine argutius fares f.

ticulata; fructus 6-10 mm. longi pedicello subd a duplo eter be ad 4plo) breviore excluso. Ramuli tenaces; folia in pagina superio

re ut videtur nunquam stomati-_

Stipulae fe distincte acutae vel etiam in ramulis vegetioribus-

minimae vel nullae; ramuli hornotini et saepe annotini plus mi ,

nusve tomentelli vel villosuli vel folia majora (eis surculorum ¢x-— ceptis) anguste lanceolata et vix ultra 1.4 cm. lata. Folia plus: minusve late lanceola

q E

E

ee

1919] SCHNEIDER, NOTES ON AMERICAN WILLOWS. V 5

Sect. I. Nicrar Loudon. —Sect. Australes Andersson in Ofv. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Férh. xv. 114 (1858), ex parte. Sect. Austro-americanae sive sect. Humboldtianae Andersson in Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl. v1. 15 (Mon. Salic.) (1867), ex parte. For further information see Schneider in Bot. Gaz. txv. 5 (1918). It may be mentioned that in a certain form of S. nigra which will be discussed later the upper epidermis of the leaves contains relatively few or no stomata at all.

1. S. Humboldtiana Willdenow. See Schneider, 1. c. 6. As I have stated, this species in its typical form is confined to South America.

1b. S. Humboldtiana var. stipulacea (Martens & Galeotti) Schneider. See Schneider, I. c. 7 (1918). This variety represents the type in Central America and Mexico but does not reach the southern border of the United Sta

tes. 1c. S. Humboldtiana var. Martiana (Leybold) Andersson. See Schnei- der, l. c. 8 (1918). A badly understood form which seems to be confined to certain parts of Brazil and Colombia.

2. S. nigra Marshall, Arbust. Am. 139 (1785). Muhlenberg in Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, rv. 287, t. 6, fig. 5 (1803). Michaux f., Hist. Arb. Am. m1. 324, t. 5, fig. 1 (1813); N. Am. Sylva, m1. 78, t.125, fig. 1 (1819). Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. mm. 614 (1814). Hooker, Fl. Bor.- Am. 11. 148 (1839). Barratt, Salic. Am. no. 20 (1840). Carey in Gray, Man. 429 (1848). Andersson in Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl. vr. 19, t. 2, fig. 15 (Monog. Salic.) (1867), ex parte; in De Candolle, Prodr. x v1.” 200 (1868), ex parte. Newhall, Trees N.E. Am. 72, fig. 36 (1890). Bebb apud Watson & Coulter, Gray Man. ed. 6, 480 (1890), excl. var. Wardit.

. Sargent, Silva N. Am. rx. 103, t. 462 (1896), excl. syn. ex parte; Man. Trees N. Am. 168, fig. 140 (1905), pro parte max. Glatfelter in Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, v1. 427, t. 1, figs. 5-7, 10 (1894). Britton & Brown, Il. Fi. 1. 494, fig. 1173 (1896). Sudworth in Bull. US. Dept. Agric. ‘Div. For. xrv. 118 (Nomencl. Arb. Fl.) (1897), ex parte. Ball in Proc. Towa Acad. Sci. vit. 143 (1900); in Elys. Mar. mn. 19 (1910). Mohr in

Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. v1. 465 (PI. Life Ala.) (1901). Small, Fl. S.E.

- States, 341 (1903), ex parte. Schneider, Ill. Handb. Laubh. 1. 32, figs.

_ Ma-b, 12a (1904). Hough, Handb. Trees, 78, figs. 91-92 (1907), pro parte

_ Max. Robinson & Fernald, Gray’s Man. 320, fig. 640 (1908). Britton

q _& Shafer, N. Am. Trees, 183, fig. 184 (1908), ex parte et excl. syn.

_ Small, Shrubs Florida, 9 (1913). Rydberg, Fl. Rocky Mts. 191 (1917).

__ 8. pentandra Walter, Fl. Car. 248 (1788). S. flavo-virens Hornemann,

Cat. ‘Hort. Hafn. Suppl. 1. 11, ex Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. ed. 2, 426 (1811), pro syn, S. nigrae.— S. ligustrina Michaux f., Hist. Arb. Am. m1.

326, t. 5, fig. 2 (1813); N. Am. Sylva, m1. 80, t. 125, fig. 2 (1819). S.

| Saleata Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 1. 614 (1814). Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. 1. 149

| (4839). Forbes, Salict. Woburn. 279, t. 148 (1829). S. Houstoniana | Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 1, 614 (1814), ex parte. Forbes, Salict. Woburn.

a ee el

6 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [Vou. 1

21, t. 11 (1829).— ?S. ambigua Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 617 (1814). —?S. Pursh- zana Sprengel, Syst. ‘v. 608, in indice (1828). S. nigra var. falcata Torrey, Fl. N.Y. 11. 209 (1843). Carey in Gray, Man. 429 (1848). Andersson in Ofv. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Férh. xv. 114 (1858). Newhall, Trees N.E. Am. 74, fig. 37 (1890). Sargent, Silva N. Am. 1x. 104, t. 463 (1896).— S. nigra a. angustifolia a. falcata et 8. longifolia Andersson in Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl. v1. 20 (1868). S. nigra b. latifolia a. brevijulis et B. longijulis gracilescens Andersson, |. c. 21 (1868). S. nigra [subspec.] S. furetpila Gandoger, Fl. Europ. xxi. 167 (1890). S. nigra [subspec.| S. leptodes Gandoger, |. c. S. nigra [subspec.| S. ventricosa Gandoger, |. ¢.

A very well-known eastern species the range of which seems to extend along the Atlantic coast from southern New Brunswick to northern North Carolina, and westward through northwestern South Carolina and northern

orgia (from where I have not yet seen typical material) to central and eastern Alabama (probably also to northern Missouri), southern Arkansas (where var. altissima is the prevailing form) and from northern Louisiana to northeastern Texas (where it seems to spread in the central parts as far south as Val Verde County on the Rio Grande, although most of the material from Texas belongs to var. Lindheimerii). The southern borderline of the range of S. nagra reaches its most western point at about 100° W. L., and from there runs northward through central Oklahoma and the eastern parts of Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota.! For the northern limit of its range may be taken a line running from about the 95th degree W. L. along the north shores of Lake Superior through southern Ontario and Quebec to southern New Brunswick. 8S. nigra does not occur in the south- west or west where it is represented by S. Gooddingii. In the south the typical form apparently passes by many intermediates into var. Lind- heimervi and var. altissima. Of peculiar interest are the forms of the south- east from Virginia to northern Florida because they show a smaller number of stomata on the upper surface of the leaves. While in the typical form as well as in var. altissima and var. Lindheimerti the number of the stomata is scarcely less on the upper than on the lower leaf-surface, these south- eastern forms sometimes only have a few stomata along the midrib and even these seem to be occasionally wanting. I have not yet been able to detect other characters to separate these forms from typical nigra but for two reasons I think it best to enumerate them below. Firstly, they cer- tainly need a further study, and secondly I wish to draw the special at- tention of all collectors to them, because the distribution of S. nigra in the southeast is very insufficiently known, and material of it from that

1! According to the map given by Hough S. nigra inhabits almost the whole state of Kansas, eastern half of Nebraska and South Dakota, the southeastern corner of North Dakota and arly the whole of Minnesota excep ne northwestern corner. I have not yet seen anne m the Dakotas and Minnesota es ecording to Lunell’s enumeration (Am, Midl. Nat. Iv. 197 [1916]) S. nigra is meets in North Dakota, and according pe tersen (Fl. Nebr. ed. 2, 69 [1912]) it occurs in Nebraska only in the eastern part of the state. It is absent from northern central and western Kansas (see Hitchcock in The Industrialist, xxiv. 323 [FI]. Kansas] [1899.] )

1919] SCHNEIDER, NOTES ON AMERICAN WILLOWS. V 7

region in herbaria is very scanty. From the range given in Britton and Brown’s Flora or in Small’s Flora it would appear that S. nigra was dis- tributed along the whole eastern coast including Florida. In his Florida Shrubs 9 (1913), Small distinguishes two species from northern Florida with “‘ leaf-blades green beneath.” One he calls S. nigra, and the other S. marginata “‘ Weimer” [Wimmer]. The first apparently represents the form I refer to above, while S. marginata seems to me identical with the plant I describe as S. Harbisonii. As to the name marginata see later under S. longipes venulosa. Harper, in his Geogr. and Veget. of northern Florida (in Sixth Ann. Rep. Florida Geol. Surv. 401 [1914]) says under S. nigra Banks of streams, etc., mostly westward.” He probably too includes forms of S. Harbisonii which, as I shall explain later, often looks intermediate between S. nigra and forms of S. longipes. I have been able to examine the following specimens of what I believe is a form closely related to typical S. nigra from Virginia to northern Florida.

Virainta. Alexandria County: Arlington, May 10, 1891, F. Blanchard (fr.; M.; stomata in pagina foliorum superiore pauciora). Dinwiddie County: Peters- burg, hanks of the Appomatox River, August 22, 1908, A. Rehder (st.; A.). Glouces- ter County, without exact locality, common, September 14, 1912, C. S. Sargent (st.; A.; very similar to the preceding). Smyth County: about falls of Holston River, done 8, 1892, J. K. Small (fr.; A., M.; stomata in pag. superiore foliorum sg a non visa).

utH Carotina. Oconee County: Clemson College, April 23, 1906, H. D. nee (No. 1910, m., f.; N.; forma satis typica stomatibus paucioribus). Abbeville County: Calhoun Falls, sioae Savannah River, May 20, 1918, T. G. Harbison (No. 6, fr.; A.; stomata in foliis superne non visa). Darlington County: Darlington, in low swampy ground, April 24, 1918, 7. G. Harbison (Nos. 19, fr., st., 21, fr., 28, fr.; A.; “large shrub”; stomata non visa vel tantum pauca secumdulis costam

EORGIA. un County: Pine rae along rocky stream in mountain; April 16, 1918, T. G. Harbison (Nos. 1, .; A.; ‘small tree’’; flowers very young, twigs rather brownish); Clayton, on ae of small stream, April 1, 1918, T. G. Harbison (Nos. 1, 2, m., f.; A.; “small tree with brittle-jointed twigs’; same as pre- ceding). Gwinnett County: Yellow River, May 22, 1897, H. Eggert (fr.; M stomata superne sparsa). De Kalb County: on and about Stone Mountain, May 1-18, 1895, J. K. Small (m., f.; A., N.; stomata superne nulla vel sparsa). Rich- mond County: near Augusta, Oetobex 7, 1914, C. S. Sargent (st.; ae stomata superne non visa); on bank of river, April 6, 1918, T. G. ee (No. 6, m.; A.; “large tree; bark rough and scaly; twigs brittle-jointed”). Randolph ye oa Cuthbert, in low ground along a small stream, March 29, 1918, 7. G. Harbison (Nos. 4, f., 5, m.; A.; “a tree 60 ft. tall and a foot in diameter; bark furrowed and scaly in thick plete twigs brittle-jointed’ ee stomata superne tantum ad costam sparsa).

Fiorina. Gadsden oe River Junction, in low ground, March 24, 1918, T. G. Harbison (No. 18, fr. im.; A.; sane 8 ft. tall; twigs brittle-jointed”’; this form may be referable to S. Harbisonii); March 24, 1918, T. G. Harbison (No. 2,

- A.; “fa tree nearly a ft. in diameter and about 50 ft. tall; bark deeply furrowed cad scaly’’; stomata superne numerosa!). Duval County: Jacksonville, in low inundated swamp, March 19, 1918, 7. G. Harbison (No. 2, fr.; A.; “large shrub or low straggling tree”; according to the rather long ee of the fruits this form may belong to S. Harbisonii).

The var. falcata cannot in my opinion even be distinguished as a good form (see Blake’s statements in Rhodora, xv. 163 [1903]), and so far as I can

8 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [voL. 1

see it is hardly possible to separate any other forms but the two following. As to S. ambigua ali I can only say that it deserves its name until we ao a type specim . S. nigra var. "aitissima Sargent in Trees & Shrubs, 1. 216 (1913).

4 ce spec. Robin, Voy. Louisiana, 111. 521 (1807). ? S. denudata Rafin- esque, Florul. Ludovic. 116 (1817). As the varietal name indicates this wil- low becomes the tallest American Salix growing up to the height of 40 m. The type was collected near Fulton on the Red River, Hempstead County, Arkansas, May 20, 1909, by the well-known collector B. F. Bush (No. 5654, fr.; A.). Except in its size it differs from the type only in the more pubes- cent young shoots, leaves and especially the petioles which are almost barbate-tomentose above and on the average are comparatively longer, and in the shape of its leaves which as a whole are more acute at the base thus resembling var. Lindheimerwi. Besides this var. altissima flowers a little later than the type where both grow together. I have seen specimens from Arkansas (Hempstead County), Louisiana (Caddo, Winn, Richland, Rapides, West Feliciana, New Orleans, St. Landry, Jefferson, Lafayette and Caleasieu Parishes), and from eastern Texas (Harrison, San Augustine, Polk, Walker, Harris, Houston, and Jefferson Counties) but some of the Texan forms need further study and may partly be referable to var. Lind- heimerit. Sargent suggested that S. marginata Wimmer might be identical with var. altissima, but Wimmer’s form belongs to S. longipes venulosa. S. denudata Rafinesque mentioned in the synonymy is an obscure species very badly described, but it seems to be referable to var. altissima.

2c. S. nigra var. Lindheimerii Schneider in Bot. Gaz. txv. 9 (1918). I have (1. c.) already dealt with this interesting variety which in some re- spects seems to form a connecting link between S. nigra and its southern representative, S. Humboldtiana (var. stipulacea), and I have enumerated the specimens examined from Mexico. In the United States it is found in the eastern part of central Texas and in southeastern Texas where I have seen it from the following counties: Grayson, Dallas, Tarrant, McLennan, Bell, Gillespie, Kendall, Comal, Bexar, Wilson, Calvado, Harris, Polk, Brazoria, Wharton, Matagorda, Victoria, Atascosa, Refugio; a specimen from Caddo County, Louisiana, is rather intermediate between var. altts- sima and var. Lindheimerti, and a sterile one from western Texas, Jeff Davis County (near Fort Davis, D. M. Andrews, No. 77; A.) belongs probably to those forms from Texas which I am unable to distinguish from typical S. nigra.| The var. Lindheimerii may also occur somewhere in southern Oklahoma along the Red River, and it seems to me to be con- nected by intermediates in the north with typical S. nigra, and more to the east with var. altissima, while in Mexico it comes very near S. Humboldt- ana as I have previously stated.

1S. nigra Coulter in Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 1. 419 (1892), dei belongs partly to var.

Lindheimerit, and his var. Wrightii seems also to represent a form of S. n lad oan not Ae true S. Wright. A sterile ae n collected by C. R. Ball on the Bear thwest of Junction, Kimble County, August 25, 1909 (No. 1537; 0. ) has very ih cae ‘and looks

much like typical S. nig

1919] SCHNEIDER, NOTES ON AMERICAN WILLOWS. V 9

3. S. Gooddingii Ball in Bot. Gaz. xu. 376, t. 12, figs. 1-2 (1905). S. nigra var. venulosa Bebb apud Coville in Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. rv. 199 (Bot. Death Valley Exped.) (1893).— S. nigra Greene, Man. Bot. San Francisco Bay, 299 (1894), non Marshall. Eastwood, Handb. Trees Cal. 35 (1905), pro parte max. Sudworth, For. Trees Pacif. Slope, 213, figs. 85-86 (1908), pro parte. Jepson in Mem. Univ. Cal. 11. 175, t. 56, figs. 1-3 (Silva Cal.) (1910), incl. var. vallicola.— Wooton in Bull. N. Mex. Agr. Coll. LXxxvul. 43, fig. (1913). For further synonymy and literature see Schnei- der in Bot. Gaz. Lxv. 12 (1918). This species is widely spread in Cali- fornia from Tehama and Butte Counties in the north to the very south and to northern Lower California. Toward the east it is found in southeastern Nevada, Lincoln and Clarke Counties (where the type was collected), Ari- zona (except probably in the northern and northeastern part of the state), southwestern New Mexico (probably not north of Socorro County and not east of the Rio Grande), and northwestern Texas (E] Paso and Jeff Davis Counties). There is a specimen in Herb. N., collected by Frémont, “on road day we left Canyon Arkansas River Aug. 28,” 1845 (No. 4024, st.) which would mean Colorado if the locality is correctly given. I have seen no other specimen of our species from that state. The eastern and north- eastern limits of its range need further observation. It is clearly distinct from the eastern S. nigra for which it has been taken by most authors. There seem to be two forms which may be distinguished by the glabrousness or by the more or less copious pubescence of the young and the one-year- old branchlets; the more pubescent one would have to be taken for the

type.

Srcr. II, TrranpRaE Dumortier. Sect. Australes Andersson in Ofv. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Férh. xv. 114 (1858), ex parte. Sect. Fragiles Andersson, I. c. 115, ex parte, non Koch, nec Fries. For further informa- tion see Schneider in Bot. Gaz. txv. 13 (1918).

4. S. amygdaloides Andersson in Ofv. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Forh. xv. 114 (1858); in Proc. Am. Acad. Sci. rv. 53 (Salic. Bor.-Am. 8) (1858); in Walpers, Ann. Bot. v. 744 (1858). Bebb in Rothrock, Wheeler’s Rep. vi. Bot. 240 (1878); in Coulter, Man. Rocky Mts. Bot. 334 (1885); apud Watson & Coulter, Gray Man. ed. 6, 481 (1890).— Macoun, Cat. Can Pl. 1. 444 (1883). Sargent, Rep. For. N. Am. 10 Cens. U.S. 1x. 166 (1884), pro parte max.; Silva N. Am. rx. 111, t. 467 (1896), pro parte max.; Man. Trees N. Am. 170, fig. 142 (1905), pro parte max. Glatfelter in Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, v1. 428, t. 1, figs. 1, 3, 4, 8, 9 (1894). Bush in State Hort. Rep. Mo. 1895, p. 360 (List Trees Mo.). Williams in Bull. S. Dak. Agric. Coll. Exp. Sta. xii. 105 (1895). Britton & Brown, IIl. Fl. 1. 495, ae 1175 (1896), pro parte max.; ed. 2, 1. 593, fig. 1452 (1913), pro parte

x. Sudworth in Bull. U.S. Dept. Agric. Div. For. x1v. 120 (Nomencl. ren Fl.) (1897), pro parte max.; For. Trees Pacif. Slope, 216, fig. 87 (1908). Ball in Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. vu. 144 (1900); in Coulter & Nel-

10 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [voL. 1

son, New Man. Rocky Mts. Bot. 129 (1909); in Bot. Gaz. Lx. 397 (1915). Rydberg in Britton, Man. 313 (1901); ed. 2, 313 (1905); in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 1. 109 (Cat. Fl. Mont.) (1901); Fl. Colo. 93 (1906); Fl. Rocky Mts. 191 (1917). Howell, Fl. N.W. Am. 1. 617 (1902). Small, Fl. S.E. States, 341 (1903). Eastwood, Handb. Trees Cal. 37 (1905). Piper in Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. x1. 212 (Fl. Wash.) (1906). Hough, Handb. Trees, 75, fig. 86 (1907), pro parte max. Jones, Willow Fam. 26 (1908). Robinson & Fernald, Gray’s Man. 821, fig. 642 (1908). Britton & Shafer, N. Am. Trees, 188, fig. 146 (1908). Daniels in Univ. Mo. Stud. Sci. Ser. u. 247 (Fl. Boulder Colo. 99) (1911). Schaffner in Ohio Biol. Surv. 1. 199 (Cat. Ohio PI.) (1914). J. L. Henry, FI. S. Brit. Col. 73 (1915). Salix [second species] Torrey in Nicollet, Rep. Upper Miss. Riv. App. B. 237 (Cat. Pl. Geyer, 160) (1843). S. nigra **S. amygdaloides Andersson in Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl. v1. 21 (Monog. Salic.) (1867). S. nigra 8. amygda- loides Andersson in De Candolle Prodr. x v1.? 201 (1868). Porter & Coulter in U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Publ. No. 4. 128 (Syn. Fl. Colo.) (1874). S. Wrightti Rydberg, Fl. Rocky Mts. 191 (1917), ex parte, non Andersson. The type of this well-known species came from South Dakota where it was collected on the banks of the Missouri at Fort Pierre during the voyage of Prince Maximilian Wied-Neuwied. I have not yet been able to examine the type, but so far as I can judge by the material from South Dakota at my disposal the form of this state is identical with that of Missouri de- scribed by Glatfelter. Its range extends from Quebec (about 73° W. L.) to central New York (Onondaga and Tompkins Counties) apparently along the southern shores of Lake Erie (absent from Pennsylvania) through northern Ohio (where it has been observed according to Schaffner as far south as Franklin County) and northern Indiana (where I have seen it from Jasper and Wells Counties) to Illinois Missouri (where it is apparently ab- sent from the southern part of the state), Kansas to northwestern Oklahoma and the northwestern corner of Texas, but the forms of Oklahoma and Texas approach the western ones which may not represent typical S. amygdaloides. Further to the west it is found in Colorado (except prob- ably in the southwestern corner), Utah (here wanting apparently in the south) and Nevada (where, judging by the material before me, it does not seem to occur in the southern and central parts of the state). From Ne- vada the western borderline runs northward through central Oregon (Lake and Wasco Counties), southeastern Washington (West Klickitat to Whit- man County) to southeastern British Columbia (eastern Kootenay according to J.L. Henry). From here the northern limit of its range seems to follow about the 50th parallel to the Winnipeg region, from where it turns a little to the south through southern Ontario and northern Quebec to Montreal. On the map given by Hough it is shown farther north in Alberta and to central Saskatchewan and central Manitoba, but I have seen no material from as far north. In the southeast Hough includes the whole course of the Ohio in the range of S. amygdaloides but it is not mentioned by Porter from Pennsylvania, and I have seen no specimens from the lower Ohio where it is

1919] SCHNEIDER, NOTES ON AMERICAN WILLOWS. V ll

said to be abundant by Sargent (Man. 171). This is probably a mis- take, as indicated above.

I am not sure whether the western forms really represent typical S. amygdaloides,' but there is certainly a form with puberulous or subtomentose young parts that deserves a special mention. Ball (1909) says that a form with very narrow leaves, scarcely 1 cm. wide, is found on the high plains east of the Rocky Mountains.” Iam not yet sure to which form he refers, and I wish to state that the western forms need a much closer study than I have been able to devote to them. It may be that the following form ought to be regarded only as a form of a western variety, and that even within the range of typical amygdaloides another corresponding form may occur. I only wish to call attention to this western form in proposing the name S. amygdaloides f. pilosiuscula, forma nov.: a typo ut videtur tantum recedit ramulis foliisque novellis pilosiusculis (? rarius ramulis petiolis foli- isque ad costam breviter subtomentosis; confer no. 902 Gooddingii); ra- mulis annotinis biennesque satis (ut fere in omnibus aliis speciminibus occidentalibus) flavescentibus, foliis superne stomatibus vulgo numerosiori- bus instructis, stipulis plus minusve acutis, amentis saepissime densioribus, fructibus magis approximatis. —I refer to f. pilosiuscula the following specimens:

Nevapa. Washoe County: Wadsworth, alt. 1265 m., May 7, 1909, A. A. Heller (No. 10403, m., paratype; A., M.); sloughs between ites id and shee re Lakes, alt. 1200 m., Tues: 1913, P. B. Kennedy (No. 1997, m., fr., im., G., Reno foliis normalibus valde juvenilibus; forma in, herbariis sub nomine e inedit to S. ane: ensis W. W. R. distributa). Churchill County: Carson Sink on alt. 1265 m., July 15, 1908, P. B. sna! (No. 1776, fr. type; A., M., Ren

Uran. Davis County: Farmington, June 11, 1908, J. Clemens (fr. juv.; G.).

(No. 1711, m.; A.); May 22, 1887, M. E. Jones (m., f.; A.); City Creek oe Wasatch Mts., 1500 m., April 20, 1900. S. G. Stokes (m., f.; St.). Beaver Cou Milford, along a bottom, June 4, 1902, L. N. Goodding (No. 1019, m., f.; A., MD). Washington County: Santa Clara Creek, May 20, 1902, L. N. Goodding (No. 902, fr. im.; M.; specimen a cl. Ball pro S. laevigata determinatum, sed ab hac species satis diverse et magis ad f. pilostusculam accedens; forma satis incerta ramulis novellis et partim annotinis petiolis costaque foliorum superne tomentellis, amentis laxis fructibus in pedicello sparse pilosis, foliis normalibus nondum satis evolutis).

Cotorapo. Montrose County: Naturita, ditch bank, alt. 1620 m., May 26, 1914, EL. Payson (No. 354, m., 355, f.; M.) ? Clear Creek County: Claas Creek Valley, May 27, 1916, A. Eastwood (Nos. 5390, f.,5391, m.; A.). Larimer County: without exact locality, foothills, alt. 1800 m., May 26, 1897, C. S. Crandall (No. 12, m., fr. juv.; M.; amentis fructiferis sublaxioribus); Fort Collins, alt. 1500 m., May 15, 1896, C. F. aes (m.; M.). Weld County: Greely, June 24, 1896, L. H. Panne oe 205, fr.; M.; parcissime pilosa); Evans, 1909, E. L. Johnson (No. 541, m.,

.; M.). Mo pases ‘County: Fort Morgan, June 23, 1896, L. H. Pammel (No. 206, st.; M.). L nimas County: bank of i sie near Trinidad, 2000 m., May 13, 1892, “o. S. Crandall (No. 9, m., f.;

1 Professor J. S. Jack collected a aes vigorous form at Holland near Pullman, Wash., Aug. 31, 1918 (No. 1241, st.; A.), that looks much like vigorous forms collected by Glatfelter near St. Louis, Mo., but in ie tirah ra the stipules are area! acute, not rounded as in the type. The young shoots and leaves are puberulous

12 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [VoL. 1

Ipano. Bear Lake County: Montpelier, creek bank, May 15, 1910, J. F. Macbride (No. 17, m. tantum; M.). Ada County: Boise, along the river, alt. 900 m., May 26, 1911, J. A. Clark (No. 21, fr. juv.; C., M., St.; forma tantum parce pilosa). Washington mi Weiser, alt. 660 m., July 5, 1899, M. FE. Jones (No. 6545, fr.; M.). Nez Perces County: about Leivion: alt. 240 m., June 9, 1896, A. A. & E.G. he (No. 3201, m., f.; A., St.; forma f pg pilosa).

WasHInctTon. Whitman County: Almota May Q7, 3, CLV. et No, 1776, m.; C.); near Pullman, 31, 1918, J. 's. Jack a a at.s As" 16 it. high, several stems 2-3 in. di

ORE . Lake County: Alkali, May, 1882, Th. J. Howell (m., f.; E. M.).

There is also a puberulous form from northwestern Texas, collected by

. J. Palmer, at Canyon, along streams, Randall County, July 12, 1917 Ne 12517, st.; A.) and near Amarillo, along streams, Potter County, July 13, 1917 (No. 12538, fr.; A.); this in my opinion belongs to the typical S. amygdaloides while, as stated above, the f. pilosiuscula s. str. is a form of the western S. amygdaloides which can probably be regarded as a distinct variety.

In the south we find the following well-marked variety:

4b. S. amygdaloides var. Wrightii Schneider in Bot. Gaz. yxy. 14 (1918). For further synonymy and literature see Schneider, |. ¢.; to the quotations may be added the following given under S. amygdaloides pro parte minima: Sargent in 1884, 1896 and 1905; Britton & Brown in 1896 and 1913; Small in 1903 and 1913; Hough in 1908. S. amygdaloides Coulter in Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. u. 419 (1892), non Andersson. S. Wrightti Rydberg, FI. Colo. 93 (1906); Fl. Rocky Mts. 191 (1917), pro parte. Britton and Shafer, N. Am. Trees, 185, fig. 14% (1908), pro parte maxima. I am not yet well enough acquainted with this variety to decide the question whether it is possible to keep it as a distinct species. Judging by the following material! I prefer to regard it at present as only a variety, the geographical distribution of which needs further investigation, especially in southern Colorado to where its range seems to extend. Wright’s Willow seems to have also a puberulous form, but sometimes young specimens of S. Good- dingit are mistaken for it. Both have the same yellowish branchlets, and the very young leaves of var. Wrightii do not always show the glaucescent lower surface. Where the two Willows meet there may occur hybrids as it is frequently the case between S. amygdaloides and S. nigra.

Western Texas. E] Paso County: El Paso, abundant along the Rio Grande, April 1851, G. Thurber (No. 195, m., f.; G., N.; “large tree’’); vicinity of El Paso, 1911, E. Stearns (No. 151, fr. im.; A.); Belen, June 19, 1893, FE. A. Mearns (Nos. 1510, fr.; St.; 1511, fr.; A., N.). Ward County: Barstow, bank of canal, April 14, 1902, 8S. M. Tracy & F.S. Earle (Nos. 52, m., 67 f.; A.). Potter County: Amarillo Creek, along the stream, May 29, 1902, J. Reverchon (No. 2926, fr.; A.). Oldham County: Magenta, “S.W. Shore of lake” (1625) and Railroad gravel pit, August 26, 1910, C. R. Ball (Nos. 1625, 1626, 1627, st.; G., M., O.; “1 ft. diam.”’; ; Ball also collected seedlings, No. 1622, ‘‘in small sandy flat back of sec house

7 this was written I have seen also the material in Herb. W. which probably contains the richest collection of Salix specimens from Texas and New Mexico. It is a matter of per-

sonal opinion whether to regard S. dA ag as a species or as a variety of S. amygdaloides. 1 prefer, however, to keep it as a vari

1919] SCHNEIDER, NOTES ON AMERICAN WILLOWS. V 13

New Mexico. Dona Ana County: Las Cruces, Experiment Station, June 13, 1911, C. R. Ball (No. 1739, fr.; G., M., O.; “‘large tree”’); Valley of the Rio Grande, near La rs June 19, 1858, S. Hayes (fr.; C.); at Mesilla, April, 1897, T. D. A. Cockerell (m., f.; N.); same locality, alt. 1150 m., June 21, 1897, E. V. Wooton (No. 44, fr.; G., M.; in St. forma foliis subtus oncdenbas porro observanda); in the Mesilla ‘Valley, alt. cire. 1150 m., April 19, 1907, E. V. Wooton & P. Standley (No. 3242, m.;C., M.). Sierra County: Tierra Blanca, 1904, J. N. Beals (fr.; A.). Otero County: er rampents Mts., Fresnal Canyon, below High Rolls, alt. 1800 m., August 26, 1916, A.